an iterative four-step management method used in business for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products.
plan–do–check–act or plan–do–check–adjust or plan–do–study–act (PDSA)
PDCA指 Plan, Do, Check和Act。 即计划／实施／检查和措施。WIKIPEDIA
Plan - Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the expected output (the target or goals). By establishing output expectations, the completeness and accuracy of the spec is also a part of the targeted improvement. When possible start on a small scale to test possible effects.
Do - Implement the plan, execute the process, make the product. Collect data for charting and analysis in the following "CHECK" and "ACT" steps.
Check/Study -Study the actual results (measured and collected in "DO" above) and compare against the expected results (targets or goals from the "PLAN") to ascertain any differences.
Act - If the CHECK shows that the PLAN that was implemented in DO is an improvement to the prior standard (baseline), then that becomes the new standard (baseline) for how the organization should ACT going forward. If ... in DO is not an improvement, then the existing standard will remain ... In either case, if the CHECK showed something different than expected (whether better or worse), then there is some more learning to be done... and that will suggest potential future PDCA cycles.
A fundamental principle of the scientific method and PDCA is iteration—once a hypothesis is confirmed (or negated), executing the cycle again will extend the knowledge further. Repeating the PDCA cycle can bring us closer to the goal, usually a perfect operation and output.
PDCA (and other forms of scientific problem solving) is also known as a system for developing critical thinking.
continually emphasized iterating towards an improved system, hence PDCA should be repeatedly implemented in spirals of increasing knowledge of the system that converge on the ultimate goal, each cycle closer than the previous. One can envision an open coil spring, with each loop being one cycle of the scientific method - PDCA, and each complete cycle indicating an increase in our knowledge of the system under study. This approach is based on the belief that our knowledge and skills are limited, but improving. Especially at the start of a project, key information may not be known; the PDCA—scientific method—provides feedback to justify our guesses (hypotheses) and increase our knowledge. Rather than enter "analysis paralysis" to get it perfect the first time, it is better to be approximately right than exactly wrong. With the improved knowledge, we may choose to refine or alter the goal (ideal state). Certainly, the PDCA approach can bring us closer to whatever goal we choose.
A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with timing and resources, used to achieve an objective. See also strategy. It is commonly understood as a temporal set of intended actions through which one expects to achieve a goal.
SWOT analysis (alternatively SWOT matrix) is an initialism for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats—and is a structured planning method that evaluates those four elements of a project or business venture.
Strengths: characteristics of the business or project that give it an advantage over others Weaknesses: characteristics that place the business or project at a disadvantage relative to others Opportunities: elements that the business or project could exploit to its advantage Threats: elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business or projectSWOT@WIKIPEDIA
Who is that man? Why is he here? Where do you live? How can I help? What do you like? When are you free?
|S||Specific||(Strategic and specific)|
|A||Achievable||Agreed, attainable,action-oriented,ambitious, aligned with corporate goals,(agreed, attainable and achievable)|
|R||Relevant||Realistic, resourced, reasonable, (realistic and resourced), results-based|
|T||Time-bound||Time-based, time limited, time/cost limited, timely, time-sensitive, timeframe|
A work breakdown structure (WBS), in project management and systems engineering, is a deliverable-oriented decomposition of a project into smaller components.
WBS is a hierarchical and incremental decomposition of the project into phases, deliverables and work packages. It is a tree structure, which shows a subdivision of effort required to achieve an objective;Design principles
The lowest elements in a tree structure, a terminal element is one that is not further subdivided. In a Work Breakdown Structure such (activity or deliverable) elements are the items that are estimated in terms of resource requirements, budget and duration;
There is a difference between knowing the path & walking the path. – Morpheus (the Matrix)
Better three hours too soon, than one minute too late. William Shakespeare
The key is in not spending time, but in investing it. Stephen R. Covey
The time for action is now. It’s never too late to do something. Carl Sandburg
Using the Eisenhower Decision Principle, tasks are evaluated using the criteria important/unimportant and urgent/not urgent, and then placed in according quadrants in an Eisenhower Matrix (also known as an "Eisenhower Box" or "Eisenhower Decision Matrix").
GTD Getting Things Done was created by David Allen and the basic idea behind this method is to finish all the small tasks immediately and a big task is to be divided into smaller tasks to start completing now. The reasoning behind this is to avoid the information overload or "brain freeze" which is likely to occur when there are hundreds of tasks. The thrust of GTD is to encourage the user to get their tasks and ideas out and on paper and organized as quickly as possible so they're easy to manage and see.
(Getting Things Done)
Francesco Cirillo's "Pomodoro Technique" was originally conceived in the late 1980s and gradually refined until it was later defined in 1992. The technique is the namesake of a pomodoro (Italian for tomato) shaped kitchen timer initially used by Cirillo during his time at university. The "Pomodoro" is described as the fundamental metric of time within the technique and is traditionally defined as being 30 minutes long, consisting of 25 minutes of work and 5 minutes of break time. Cirillo also recommends a longer break of 15 to 30 minutes after every four Pomodoros. Through experimentation involving various work groups and mentoring activities, Cirillo determined the "ideal Pomodoro" to be 20–35 minutes long
Manifesto for Agile Software Development
if all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail - Law of the instrument
“Take a rest. A field that has rested yields a beautiful crop.”- Roman poet Ovid
为了使灵魂宁静，一个人每天要做两件他不喜欢的事。 说这句话的人是个聪明人，我也一直在一丝不苟地按照这条格言行事： 因为我每天早上都起床，每天也都上床睡觉。 - 月亮和六便士